Then there's the deeper problem: a political infrastructure built almost exclusively around Ethiopia's constituent ethno-national groups. Livestock population with estimated 30-35 million. Generally the adverse consequences of global changes have the most significant effects on the poorest and most vulnerable, who historically have had limited entitlements and opportunities for growth. Ethiopia has varies potentials regarding to aggro-ecological zones. EEA/EEPRI. Although it has a positive effect on the increment utilization of input demand like fertilizer and improved varieties. Lack of sustained and intergenerational commitments to transform the legal or constitutional system for millennia made the country liable. In some places high salinity and sodicity/alkalinity levels coupled with poor drainage of the soils are at present resulting in quite a large area of productive lands being abandoned from cultivation. It enhanced the integration of researchers affiliated on the crop improvements, conservation agriculture, agroecology, agroforestry, and the development of crop varieties that are more tolerant to pests, diseases, drought, waterlogging, and salinity (FAO, 2013). Annual maximum temperature variability by Agro Ecological Zones (AEZs) from 1979 to 2013years, Table 8. Coffee is the largest foreign exchange earner. The farmland obtained in such a way is very limited to the individual capacity to work and difficult even to plow by oxen-power than tractor. Summary of the spatial variability of surface water in Ethiopia. Alluvial beds of major rivers close to 16%. avoids the problem of heteroskedasticity and endogeneity, reduces the problem of multi . Performance cookies are used to understand and analyze the key performance indexes of the website which helps in delivering a better user experience for the visitors. Ethiopia is a country of peasants with primitive agriculture. In contrast to this finding, Knippenberg et al. In FY 2017/2018, the United . Soil erosion is a serious problem in Ethiopia. AQUASTAT - FAOs global information system on water and agriculture, FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations). To determine whether farmers consider termites as one of their problems in growing trees and practices they use to manage termites, short semi-structured questionnaires were distributed to farmers selected randomly. But loss and decline of biodiversity are the major problem of Ethiopia that caused by a range of drivers, such as either natural or human-induced factor that directly or indirectly causes a change in an ecosystem. Agriculture in Ethiopia is mainly dependent on rainfed systems, and this dependency has put the majority of the Ethiopian population at the mercy of meteorological variability. Therefore, farm size affects agricultural sustainability in the economy, social aspects, and environmental performance of agricultural production, for instance, increasing farm size has a positive impact on farmers net profit, economic benefits, technical and labor efficiency with mean coefficients of 0.005, 0.02, and 2.25 in China, respectively (Ren et al., 2019). The amount of river-based water in Ethiopia could be 124.4 billion cubic meters (Berhanu et al., 2014). Current challenges facing the global food system. According to Diriba (2020), the practice of mechanized agriculture in Ethiopia is estimated at 0.7% for land preparation while it is less than 0.8% for crops thresher machines. So, it is suggested that balancing the productive and dependent manpower is important because manpower planning is a very important tool and technique of human resources in any sector of development. The Government of Ethiopia (GOE) has identified key priority intervention areas to increase productivity of smallholder farms and expand large-scale commercial farms. Limited technology and education are perhaps the largest difficulties that smallholder farmers in Ethiopia struggle with. The maize lethal necrotic viruses, leaf and fruit spot of citrus (Pseudocercospora angolensis), Bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum) of ginger (Duressa, 2018), garlic rot (Sclerotium cepivorum Berk), Bacterial wilt of ginger (Ralstonia solanacearum), and new races of wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp.tritici (1b) are among the major crop diseases (MoANR (Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources), 2016). Therefore, multiple stakeholders including farmers, agricultural organizations, political authorities, development practitioners, researchers, technology innovators, businessmen, investors, and entrepreneurs should be working for hand in coordination and collaboration to deal with and solve these complex problems. It improves the drastic cuts in economy-wide and agricultural fossil fuel use by addressing climate change, prevent emerging transboundary agricultural threats like pests and natural hazards, which affects all ecosystems and every aspect of human life through International collaboration (FAO, 2017). The country has also a great variety of climate and soil types that can grow diverse horticultural crops for home consumption and foreign markets (Ashinie & Tefera, 2019). The farming systems are facing constraints such as small land size, lack of resources, and increasing degradation of soil quality that hamper sustainable crop production and food security. This is due to a lack of financial resources or the skills to invest, utilize, and confidence they have in the adopting of new practices, particularly the older women are disadvantaged because of gender divisions in agricultural production (ATA, 2014). Deforestation impacts agriculture through natural disturbance, including biodiversity loss (Oljirra, 2019; Bishaw, 2009), damaged habitat, aridity, adverse soil erosion, degradation of wasteland, extinction of life, and displacement of populations (Culas, 2006). Machinery including computers: US$1.7 billion (11.4% of total imports) But increased input alone does not increase the food supply and staple crop yields, and thus farm income declines as population density increases. But opting out of some of these cookies may affect your browsing experience. A rural community settlement has another negative impact on the utilization of farmlands for mechanization. Achieving sustainable development and promoting development cooperation, World population prospects: The 2015 revision. Land constraints and agricultural intensification in Ethiopia: A village-level analysis of high-potential areas. The country has also ample opportunity in. The total land under fruits and vegetable cultivation is estimated to be only about 0.45million hectares, which is less than 5% of the total cultivated land (MoARD (Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Development), 2009). Most of the intensive dairy farms are concentrated in and around Addis Ababa and are basically based on exotic pure bred stock. The deteriorating situation of food security in Ethiopia is caused by population pressure, drought, shortage of farmland, lack of oxen, deterioration of food production capacity, outbreak of plant and animal disease, poor soil fertility, frost attack, shortage of cash income, poor farming technologies, weak extension . Furthermore, low quality of education in terms of poor physical facilities, lack of well-trained teachers, and shortage of learning materials, exacerbate the problems of the educational system. ATA (Agricultural Transformation Agency). It is also difficult to implement mechanize farms, inefficient to work on it to secure the families demand because the small farm size cultivated is yielded lower. Five major cereals (teff, wheat, maize, sorghum, and barley) are the core of Ethiopias agriculture and food economy, accounting for about three-fourths of the total area cultivated, 29 percent of agricultural gross domestic product (GDP) in 2005/06 (14 percent of total GDP), and 64 percent of calories consumed (FAO . For many low-income families, low harvests mean they do not have enough food and are unable to eat nutritious food on a regular basis. Cited by lists all citing articles based on Crossref citations.Articles with the Crossref icon will open in a new tab. It is located in the Horn of Africa, bordering six (6) countries: Djibouti and Somalia to the East, Eritrea to the North and Northeast, Kenya to the South and Sudan and South Sudan to the West. The overall food prices in Ethiopia were inflated from 7.4 to 15.8% between the years of 20142019 ( It is too old in the case of the current context or generations. Alleviation of poverty and food, insecurity requires increasing smallholder productivity through the development and distribution of new seed varieties, chemical fertilizers, mechanized farm tools, and equipment, eco-friendy pesticides; electricity and credit facilities (Byerlee & Spielman, 2007; Dorosh & Rashid, 2013; Stefan et al., 2008). These still indicated very little transformation in the utilization of technologies in production. Furthermore, mitigating the variability of climate change helps the most vulnerable group of the society to stabilize farmers income during drought and poor output (Shekuru et al., 2020). Why agriculture is the backbone of Ethiopian economy? We use cookies to improve your website experience. In Ethiopia, the land is allocated to farmers by the state. Agriculture leads the economies of developing countries like Ethiopia and it is the fastest growing agricultural sector in the countries (3.77% for livestock vs. 2.71% for crops in last decade (Rs et al., 2016). Therefore, this paper is devoted to reviewing the existing agricultural challenges and future prospects in the country. We use cookies on our website to give you the most relevant experience by remembering your preferences and repeat visits. It was highly aggravated in the Middle East countries of the world (Figure 2). Bureaucracy and ill management is another (may be the second biggest) top problem the country is facing. The variability of food price increment occurs within a short period of time, season, and years. Your email address will not be published. To learn about our use of cookies and how you can manage your cookie settings, please see our Cookie Policy. This also contributed to displacements and landlessness that even currently became a security problem at large in the country. The increased population and landlessness of the subsequent farming generations led to unwise use of natural resources in general and forest in particular. Want to see the full answer? Your email address will not be published. Analytical cookies are used to understand how visitors interact with the website. What is constraints of Ethiopian agriculture? It constitutes over 50% of the gross domestic product (GDP), accounts for over 85% of the labour force and earns over 90% of the foreign exchange [2]. The author is not aware of any affiliations, memberships, funding, or financial holdings that might be perceived as affecting the objectivity of this review. The majority of the Ethiopians are farmers but they have not yet secured food at large. Table 11. The reason for the underutilization of the resources and water resources, in particular, are many, among which lack of technology and finance is just to mention a few (Table 10). In the coming decades, ensuring food security is one of the greatest challenges in Ethiopia. Its rate has increased with increasing of Ethiopians, overgrazes, deforestations, utilizes of dung, and crop residues for fuel and other uses. MoARD (Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Development). FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). Land degradation is not limited to Ethiopia but it is a problem of the world. Therefore, liberalizing the land market by lifting the land contract restrictions can enhance the exchange of land among rural households (Belay et al., 2017). Ethiopians have dominantly practiced a mixed agricultural activity. Therefore, emphasizing agriculture in Ethiopia requires the political as well as the economic commitment of all parties concerned. The major factors are increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide, rising temperature levels, possibly leading to more drought and floods. For example, in 1913/14 (Northern Ethiopia), 1920/22, 1932/34, 1953, 1957/58, 1964/66, and 1973/74 (Tigray and Wolo), 19831984, 19871988, and 199092, 1993/94 (Wolde-Georgis, 1997) and recently in 2015/2016 (Eastern parts of Ethiopia followed by ElNio). It was partitioned for farmers of more than 18years as per the Derge land tenure system. It began with the domestication of crops and animals. These situations have resulted in the losses of resources, the rising tide of hunger and poverty. 5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG. It also declines the levels of arable land availability (Campbell, 2011; Pender et al., 2006). Agriculture is the backbone of the Ethiopian economy. The northern part of Ethiopia is highly affected historically by drought/famine several times. Causes of poverty in Ethiopia include a variety of actions stemming from natural disasters as well as man-made actions. Weak institutional and policy frameworks further may fail to enforce proper land administration and use (Dubovyk, 2017). Recommended articles lists articles that we recommend and is powered by our AI driven recommendation engine. The cookie is set by the GDPR Cookie Consent plugin and is used to store whether or not user has consented to the use of cookies. improper handling and lack of packaging and refrigerated storage facilities are the major problems . What ways affect agricultural development in Ethiopia? If critical issues are not addressed the food price inflation creates political instability, disorder, chaos, unemployment, malnutrition, hunger, poverty, imbalance, and inefficient resource distributions among the nations which may lead to migration. Around 80.0-85.0% of Ethiopians are engaged in agriculture, mainly in subsistence and rain-fed farming and livestock production. fLACK OF DEFINITE AGRICULTURE LAND USE POLICY At regional level it is on the will of the farmer to grow A little modification has been made to bring internal transformation in the thinking and working habit of the people in the past century. In addition, the countrys agriculture highly depends on rain-fed. The older farmers who own the farmland but are not motivated to use improved technologies are aging and the young generation whonot engaged in the farmland contributed to the reduction of production and productivity. PASDEP implementation as the main instrument for delivering agricultural growth through strong push for intensification to increase yield and productivity in the smallholder sector. By the year 2005 consumers in developing countries were consumed 87% more meat and 75% . The agriculture sector is projected to grow at 6.2 percent per annum over the next ten years. Soil erosion is an endogenous factor that happened during heavy rainfall and wind. Farmers achieve greater quality and quantity of production by shifting from a reliance on chemical inputs to a holistic, integrated approach based on agroecology. Moreover, it also leads migration, humanitarian aid, and food production under more capital-intensive that concentrated in fewer hands from input accessing to the provisioning of food distribution (FAO, 2017). Excessive use of chemical fertilizers, mono-cropping; deforestation, soil erosion due to poor soil management practices such as over-cultivation of soils or overgrazing added to the problem. The country is home to about 49 million heads of cattle, 22 million heads of goats, 17 million heads of sheep and 38 million chickens. On the other hand, the agricultural problems in the developed and developing countries like Ethiopia are not the same. The most frequent causes include a lack of more recently developed improved seeds, initial investment funds, cropland loss, labor, pesticides, invasive alien species, farm storage techniques, small-scale irrigation techniques, and obstacles based on religion and culture. Improving irrigation technology like water harvesting technology is the best option to reduce water losses and improve water use efficiency from the soil-plant system. Majorly, it focused on the shortage of farmland, climate change, fragmentation and degradation of farmland, unevenly distributed constructions and urbanizations, pests, lack of integration among stakeholders, political instabilities, and its prospects. Twenty-four (24) % of the degraded areas are found in Africa, SouthEast Asia, and South China, Northcentral Australia, Pampas, Swaths of the Siberian and Northern American taiga; 1.5 billion people live in these areas (Bai et al., 2008). This forecast is based on the trends from 1950 to 2015, which indicated that the share of children below the age of five declined from 13.4% to 9.1%, while above 65years life expectant increased from 5.1 to 8.3% (FAO, 2017). This isconstrained by abiotic and biotic factors. The study area was purposively selected, and a simple random sampling method was used to selected households' fatteners from each kebele and interviewed using structured questionnaires. Ethiopia is a preferred destination for many investors and tourists because of the unique climatic conditions it possesses. Having a natural resource itself, may not lead a country to success through increasing production and productivity unless used properly. Desertification 3. Yet agriculture is the countrys most promising resource. The uses of improved drought-tolerant crop varieties are also helpful in saving water. The country intends to be a middle-income economy by 2025. Ethiopia will be ranked fifth in the rate of population increment globally (UNDESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs), 2019). Most Ethiopians practice mixed agricultural activity which represents about 33.88% of the country`s GDP. Poverty is the number 1 problem in Ethiopia. Land use and household holding by region, 19971998, Table 2. Today, Ethiopia faces high levels of food insecurity, ranking as one of the hungriest countries in the world, with an estimated 5.2 million people needing food assistance in 2010. Table 1. Feed shortage was the primary constraint in both areas. Small-scale producers and landless households are the most vulnerable to climate change in Ethiopia. The Importance Of Agriculture In Ethiopia. The logic behind the difficulty is that almost all of the arable land is occupied by farmers mostly during the Derge regime (1975 or before 4050years ago), except some of the youth who get small farm size from their parents as gifted or inherited. Vast grazing land and livestock resource (55-58%) of its total area. It increased by around 70% based on the current estimation backgrounds. Table 10. Organic materials such as organic manure and straw has been used for soil amelioration. image: . Furthermore, this sector requires marketing opportunities to export to foreign countries. However, in contrast to this finding, Aragie (2013) reported that in the past four decades the annual temperature increased by 0.37C per decade. Ethiopia has no: Less than 21 soil types with varying physical and chemical features. For instance, the wholesale price unit of maize grain in the capital city of Ethiopia (Addis Ababa) alone increased from 1,469 to 5,013 from 2005 to 2012 in Ethiopian Birr (ETB) per ton (FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations), 2015) and the price is tripled in the last five years. Dryland areas in Ethiopia encompass pastoral and agro-pastoral areas in the country and have long been regarded as peripheries especially in economic terms. Which flower will blooms once in 12 years? More than 80% of the population lives in rural areas where farming (i.e. Five major cereals (teff, wheat, maize, sorghum, and barley) are the core of Ethiopias agriculture and food economy, accounting for about three-fourths of the total area cultivated, 29 percent of agricultural gross domestic product (GDP) in 2005/06 (14 percent of total GDP), and 64 percent of calories consumed (FAO . Last month, at the 23rd anniversary of the downfall of the Dergue regime, Prime Minister Hailemariam declared that Ethiopias have become food self-sufficient at national level with annual production of major crops reaching 25 million tones (250 million Quintals). Perhaps, environmental degradation, climate change, and limited advanced agricultural technology tend to be affecting much more the older farmers than their younger, healthier, and better-educated counterparts. Ethiopia is home to a large number of people living below the international poverty line, and although the economy is diversifying, farming is still the main source of income for many people. 4. Bureaucracy and ill management is another (may be the second biggest) top problem the country is facing. Agriculture is the backbone of the Ethiopian economy. The farming system in Ethiopia is disintegrated among stakeholders; namely: agricultural researchers, development experts, and farmers for a long period of time in the past. The author received no direct funding for this research. Table 4. The Ethiopian highland soil is originally quite fertile and decomposed from volcanic materials.
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